Vernacular Multilingualism: The use of French in Medieval Dutch Literature

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Recently new attention has been paid to the presence and use of French outside of France in multilingual regions, one of them being the Southern Low Countries. Scholarship focusing on this area has emphasized the presence of French within the Dutch literary culture as well as studied the language attitude of Dutch authors towards French. This article adds a third focus to this scholarship, namely that of the use of French found within multilingual texts from the Southern Low Countries. Through an analysis of a selection of bilingual and trilingual texts, it is determined how French is incorporated in these texts, what functionality it serves and to what extent this function reflects or contradicts findings from the other two views on French in medieval Dutch literary culture.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)181-198
Number of pages18
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Bilingualism
  • Dutch narrative literature
  • Sociolinguistics
  • Southern Low Countries
  • Vernacular multilingualism


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