VAST: a practical validation framework for e-assessment solutions

Max van Haastrecht*, Matthieu Brinkhuis, Saskia Wools, Marco Spruit

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The influx of technology in education has made it increasingly difficult to assess the validity of educational assessments. The field of information systems often ignores the social dimension during validation, whereas educational research neglects the technical dimensions of designed instruments. The inseparability of social and technical elements forms the bedrock of socio-technical systems. Therefore, the current lack of validation approaches that address both dimensions is a significant gap. We address this gap by introducing VAST: a validation framework for e-assessment solutions. Examples of such solutions are technology-enhanced learning systems and e-health applications. Using multi-grounded action research as our methodology, we investigate how we can synthesise existing knowledge from information systems and educational measurement to construct our validation framework. We develop an extensive user guideline complementing our framework and find through expert interviews that VAST facilitates a comprehensive, practical approach to validating e-assessment solutions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)603-627
Number of pages25
JournalInformation Systems and e-Business Management
Issue number3
Early online date11 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • E-assessment
  • Formative assessment
  • Multi-grounded action research
  • Socio-technical systems
  • Validation


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