Variation in plant Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor domain protein dependence on ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1

Oliver Johanndrees, Erin L Baggs, Charles Uhlmann, Federica Locci, Henriette L Läßle, Katharina Melkonian, Kiara Käufer, Joram A Dongus, Hirofumi Nakagami, Ksenia V Krasileva, Jane E Parker, Dmitry Lapin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains are integral to immune systems across all kingdoms. In plants, TIRs are present in nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors, NLR-like, and TIR-only proteins. Although TIR-NLR and TIR signaling in plants require the ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 (EDS1) protein family, TIRs persist in species that have no EDS1 members. To assess whether particular TIR groups evolved with EDS1, we searched for TIR-EDS1 co-occurrence patterns. Using a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of TIR domains from 39 algal and land plant species, we identified 4 TIR families that are shared by several plant orders. One group occurred in TIR-NLRs of eudicots and another in TIR-NLRs across eudicots and magnoliids. Two further groups were more widespread. A conserved TIR-only group co-occurred with EDS1 and members of this group elicit EDS1-dependent cell death. In contrast, a maize (Zea mays) representative of TIR proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats was also present in species without EDS1 and induced EDS1-independent cell death. Our data provide a phylogeny-based plant TIR classification and identify TIRs that appear to have evolved with and are dependent on EDS1, while others have EDS1-independent activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)626-642
Number of pages17
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number1
Early online date13 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Structural basis
  • Pathogen effector
  • Tir domains
  • Self-association
  • Resistance protein
  • Evolution
  • Family
  • Cell-death
  • Nad(+) cleavage activity
  • Defense


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