Ultrasensitive gas detection of large-area boron-doped graphene

Ruitao Lv, Gugang Chen, Qing Li, Amber McCreary, Andrés Botello-Méndez, S. V. Morozov, Liangbo Liang, Xavier Declerck, Nestor Perea-López, David A. Cullen, Simin Feng, Ana Laura Elías, Rodolfo Cruz-Silva, Kazunori Fujisawa, Morinobu Endo, Feiyu Kang, Jean Christophe Charlier, Vincent Meunier, Minghu Pan, Avetik R. HarutyunyanKonstantin S. Novoselov, Mauricio Terrones*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Heteroatom doping is an efficient way to modify the chemical and electronic properties of graphene. In particular, boron doping is expected to induce a p-type (boron)-conducting behavior to pristine (nondoped) graphene, which could lead to diverse applications. However, the experimental progress on atomic scale visualization and sensing properties of large-area boron-doped graphene (BG) sheets is still very scarce. This work describes the controlled growth of centimeter size, high-crystallinity BG sheets. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used to visualize the atomic structure and the local density of states around boron dopants. It is confirmed that BG behaves as a p-type conductor and a unique croissant-like feature is frequently observed within the BG lattice, which is caused by the presence of boron-carbon trimers embedded within the hexagonal lattice. More interestingly, it is demonstrated for the first time that BG exhibits unique sensing capabilities when detecting toxic gases, such as NO 2 and NH 3 , being able to detect extremely lowconcentrations (e.g., parts per trillion, parts per billion). This work envisions that other attractive applications could now be explored based on as-synthesized BG.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14527-14532
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • B-C trimers
  • Boron-doped
  • Gas sensor
  • Graphene
  • STM


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