The BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine induces transient afucosylated IgG1 in naive but not in antigen-experienced vaccinees

Fatebenefratelli-Sacco Infectious Diseases Physicians group, UMC COVID-19 S3/HCW study group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Afucosylated IgG1 responses have only been found against membrane-embedded epitopes, including anti-S in SARS-CoV-2 infections. These responses, intrinsically protective through enhanced FcγRIIIa binding, can also trigger exacerbated pro-inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19. We investigated if the BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 mRNA also induced afucosylated IgG responses. Methods: Blood from vaccinees during the first vaccination wave was collected. Liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to study anti-S IgG1 Fc glycoprofiles. Responsiveness of alveolar-like macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines in presence of sera and antigen was tested. Antigen-specific B cells were characterized and glycosyltransferase levels were investigated by Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). Findings: Initial transient afucosylated anti-S IgG1 responses were found in naive vaccinees, but not in antigen-experienced ones. All vaccinees had increased galactosylated and sialylated anti-S IgG1. Both naive and antigen-experienced vaccinees showed relatively low macrophage activation potential, as expected, due to the low antibody levels for naive individuals with afucosylated IgG1, and low afucosylation levels for antigen-experienced individuals with high levels of anti-S. Afucosylation levels correlated with FUT8 expression in antigen-specific plasma cells in naive individuals. Interestingly, low fucosylation of anti-S IgG1 upon seroconversion correlated with high anti-S IgG levels after the second dose. Interpretation: Here, we show that BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination induces transient afucosylated anti-S IgG1 responses in naive individuals. This observation warrants further studies to elucidate the clinical context in which potent afucosylated responses would be preferred. Funding: LSBR 1721, 1908; ZonMW 10430012010021, 09150161910033, 10430012010008; DFG 398859914, 400912066, 390884018; PMI; DOI4-Nr. 3; H2020-MSCA-ITN 721815.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104408
Number of pages19
JournalEBioMedicine
Volume87
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Antibodies
  • COVID-19
  • Fucosylation
  • Glycosylation
  • mRNA Vaccine

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