Solid-State Fermented Plant Foods as New Protein Sources

Tessa S Canoy*, Emma Schack Wiedenbein, Wender L P Bredie, Anne S Meyer, Han A B Wösten, Dennis Sandris Nielsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The current animal-based production of protein-rich foods is unsustainable, especially in light of continued population growth. New alternative proteinaceous foods are therefore required. Solid-state fermented plant foods from Africa and Asia include several mold- and Bacillus-fermented foods such as tempeh, sufu, and natto. These fermentations improve the protein digestibility of the plant food materials while also creating unique textures, flavors, and taste sensations. Understanding the nature of these transformations is of crucial interest to inspire the development of new plant-protein foods. In this review, we describe the conversions taking place in the plant food matrix as a result of these solid-state fermentations. We also summarize how these (nonlactic) plant food fermentations can lead to desirable flavor properties, such as kokumi and umami sensations, and improve the protein quality by removing antinutritional factors and producing additional essential amino acids in these foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-210
Number of pages22
JournalAnnual review of food science and technology
Issue number1
Early online date18 Dec 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Bacillus
  • fermentation
  • mold
  • plant protein
  • plant-based
  • solid-state


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