Searching for ring-like structures in the cosmic microwave background

M. Lopez*, P. Bonizzi, K. Driessens, G. Koekoek, J. A. de Vries, R. Westra

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this research, we present an alternative methodology to search for ring-like structures in the sky with unusually large temperature gradients, namely, Hawking points (HPs), in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which are possible observational effects associated with Conformal Cyclic Cosmology (CCC). To assess the performance of our method, we constructed an artificial data set of HP, according to CCC, and we were able to retrieve 95 per cent
of ring-like anomalies from it. Furthermore, we scanned the Planck CMB sky map and compared it to simulations according to ΛCDM, where we applied robust statistical tests to assess the existence of HP. Even though no significant ring-like structures were observed, we report the largest excess of HP candidates found at α =1 per cent significance level for the analysed sky maps (CMB at 70GHz, SEVEM, SMICA, and Commander-Ruler), and we stress the need to continue the theoretical and experimental research in this direction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)922-930
Number of pages9
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023


  • methods: statistical
  • early Universe
  • cosmic background radiation


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