RETRACTED ARTICLE: Eye tracking: empirical foundations for a minimal reporting guideline

Kenneth Holmqvist*, Saga Lee Örbom, Ignace T.C. Hooge, Diederick C. Niehorster, Robert G. Alexander, Richard Andersson, Jeroen S. Benjamins, Pieter Blignaut, Anne Marie Brouwer, Lewis L. Chuang, Kirsten A. Dalrymple, Denis Drieghe, Matt J. Dunn, Ulrich Ettinger, Susann Fiedler, Tom Foulsham, Jos N. van der Geest, Dan Witzner Hansen, Samuel B. Hutton, Enkelejda KasneciAlan Kingstone, Paul C. Knox, Ellen M. Kok, Helena Lee, Joy Yeonjoo Lee, Jukka M. Leppänen, Stephen Macknik, Päivi Majaranta, Susana Martinez-Conde, Antje Nuthmann, Marcus Nyström, Jacob L. Orquin, Jorge Otero-Millan, Soon Young Park, Stanislav Popelka, Frank Proudlock, Frank Renkewitz, Austin Roorda, Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Bonita Sharif, Frederick Shic, Mark Shovman, Mervyn G. Thomas, Ward Venrooij, Raimondas Zemblys, Roy S. Hessels

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In this paper, we present a review of how the various aspects of any study using an eye tracker (such as the instrument, methodology, environment, participant, etc.) affect the quality of the recorded eye-tracking data and the obtained eye-movement and gaze measures. We take this review to represent the empirical foundation for reporting guidelines of any study involving an eye tracker. We compare this empirical foundation to five existing reporting guidelines and to a database of 207 published eye-tracking studies. We find that reporting guidelines vary substantially and do not match with actual reporting practices. We end by deriving a minimal, flexible reporting guideline based on empirical research (Section “An empirically based minimal reporting guideline”).

-This article was retracted on 16 November 2023-

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)364-416
Number of pages53
JournalBehavior Research Methods
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • Data quality
  • Eye movements
  • Eye tracking
  • Replicability
  • Reporting guidelines
  • Reporting practices
  • Reporting standards
  • Reproducibility


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