Respiratory Diseases in Farmers

Lidwien A.M. Smit*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review


Farmers are at risk of developing respiratory diseases due to multiple work-related exposures. This overview discusses exposures in the farm environment, such as organic dust, endotoxin, allergens, and pesticides, and the deleterious and protective effects on respiratory health associated with those exposures. Farmers are at risk of adult-onset asthma and work-related asthma symptoms, chronic bronchitis, airflow limitation, organic dust toxic syndrome, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, rhinitis, and zoonotic infections. Occupational exposure to certain pesticides may increase the risk of lung cancer in farmers. Conversely, organic dust exposure and livestock farming are associated with a lower occurrence of allergic rhinitis and atopic sensitization.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine, Second Edition
EditorsSam Janes
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)978-0-08-102724-0
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2021


  • Allergy
  • Asthma
  • COPD
  • Endotoxin
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  • Lung cancer
  • Organic dust
  • Pesticides
  • Respiratory infections
  • Zoonotic infections


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