Residential satisfaction in housing estates in European cities: a multi-level approach.

K.K. Dekker, S. de Vos, S. Musterd, R. van Kempen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This paper mainly focuses on the determinants of housing and estate satisfaction in post-Second World War housing estates. Multi-level linear regression models were applied to estimate the impacts of individual, dwelling and estate characteristics on resident satisfaction levels, using a unique dataset from 25 post-Second World War estates in nine European countries. It is concluded that satisfaction with the dwelling is higher for the elderly and residents with higher incomes, and in situations where the dwelling has been renovated and is sufficiently large. The presence of children and a longer duration of stay have negative impacts, and renters are generally more negative than owners. Estate satisfaction is highest among immigrant households or when the dwelling is renovated, and among lower educated inhabitants. Individual characteristics and opinions on the estate are more important than estate characteristics in explaining estate satisfaction. The overall conclusion is that attempts to improve post-Second World War areas may result in new areas, but does not necessarily improve the overall satisfaction.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-499
Number of pages21
JournalHousing Studies
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Satisfaction
  • post-Second World War housing estates
  • multi-level regression
  • Europe


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