Phenylglyoxaldehyde-Functionalized Polymeric Sorbents for Urea Removal from Aqueous Solutions

Jacobus A W Jong, Yong Guo, Cas Veenhoven, Marc-Etienne Moret, Johan van der Zwan, Alessandra Lucini Paioni, Marc Baldus, Karina C Scheiner, Remco Dalebout, Mies J van Steenbergen, Marianne C Verhaar, Robert Smakman, Wim E Hennink, Karin G F Gerritsen, Cornelus F van Nostrum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


For realization of a wearable artificial kidney based on regeneration of a small volume of dialysate, efficient urea removal from dialysate is a major challenge. Here a potentially suitable polymeric sorbent based on phenylglyoxaldehyde (PGA), able to covalently bind urea under physiological conditions, is described. Sorbent beads containing PGA groups were obtained by suspension polymerization of either styrene or vinylphenylethan-1-one (VPE), followed by modification of the aromatic groups of poly(styrene) and poly(VPE) into PGA. It was found that PGA-functionalized sorbent beads had maximum urea binding capacities of 1.4-2.2 mmol/g and removed ∼0.6 mmol urea/g in 8 h at 37 °C under static conditions from urea-enriched phosphate-buffered saline, conditions representative of dialysate regeneration. This means that the daily urea production of a dialysis patient can be removed with a few hundred grams of this sorbent which, is an important step forward in the development of a wearable artificial kidney.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)515-527
Number of pages13
JournalACS Applied Polymer Materials
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Feb 2020


  • chemisorption
  • dialysis
  • kinetics
  • phenylglyoxaldehyde
  • sorbent
  • urea


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