Norms for the beck depression inventory (BDI-II) in a large Dutch community sample

J. Roelofs*, G. Van Breukelen, L. Esther De Graaf, A.T. Beck, A. Arntz, M.J.H. Huibers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) is a widely used instrument that provides information about the presence and severity of depressive symptoms. Although the BDI-II is a psychometrically sound instrument, relatively little is known about norm scores. This study aimed to develop reliable norms for the BDI-II in a Dutch community sample. Gender, age, and education were hypothesized to predict BDI-II scores. A total of 7,500 respondents from a community sample in The Netherlands completed the BDI-II. It was investigated by means of multiple regression analysis whether distinct norms for genders, education levels, and age group are appropriate. BDI-II scores depended on gender and education level, but not on age. BDI-II norms were computed based on the final regression model. These BDI-II norms can be used for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or the evaluation of treatment effects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-98
JournalJournal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • BDI-II
  • Beck Depression Inventory
  • Depression
  • Norming


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