Mussolini's Nature: An Environmental History of Italian Fascism

Roberta Biasillo, Marco Armiero*, Wilko Graf von Hardenberg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Book/ReportBookAcademic


This exploration of the environmental practices of Benito Mussolini's fascist regime invites readers to consider the ecological connections of all political projects.

In this first environmental history of Italian fascism, Marco Armiero, Roberta Biasillo, and Wilko Graf von Hardenberg reveal that nature and fascist rhetoric are inextricable. Mussolini's Nature explores fascist political ecologies, or rather the practices and narratives through which the regime constructed imaginary and material ecologies functional to its political project. The book does not pursue the ghost of a green Mussolini by counting how many national parks were created during the regime or how many trees planted. Instead, the reader is trained to recognize fascist political ecology in Mussolini's speeches, reclaimed landscapes, policies of economic self-sufficiency, propaganda documentaries, reforested areas, and in the environmental transformation of its colonial holdings.

The authors conclude with an examination of the role of fascist landscapes in the country's postwar reconstruction: Mussolini's nature is still visible today through plaques, monuments, toponomy, and the shapes of landscapes. This original, and surprisingly intimate, environmental history is not merely a chronicle of conservation in fascist Italy but also an invitation to consider the socioecological connections of all political projects.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationCambridge, MA
PublisherMIT Press
Number of pages262
ISBN (Print)9780262544719
Publication statusPublished - 13 Dec 2022


  • environmental history
  • Italian fascism
  • reclamation
  • Italian colonialism
  • Benito Mussolini


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