Mushroom cultivation in the circular economy

Daniel Grimm, Han A B Wösten

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Commercial mushrooms are produced on lignocellulose such as straw, saw dust, and wood chips. As such, mushroom-forming fungi convert low-quality waste streams into high-quality food. Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is usually considered a waste product. This review discusses the applications of SMS to promote the transition to a circular economy. SMS can be used as compost, as a substrate for other mushroom-forming fungi, as animal feed, to promote health of animals, and to produce packaging and construction materials, biofuels, and enzymes. This range of applications can make agricultural production more sustainable and efficient, especially if the CO2 emission and heat from mushroom cultivation can be used to promote plant growth in greenhouses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7795-7803
Number of pages9
JournalApplied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Mushroom
  • Edible mushroom
  • Fungus
  • Spent mushroom substrate
  • Circular economy
  • Mycelium material


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