Multifocality and opportunity structure: towards a mixed embeddedness model for transnational migrant entrepreneurship

Giacomo Solano, Veronique Schutjens, Jan Rath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This article addresses transnational migrant entrepreneurship, which refers to migrants involved in cross-border entrepreneurial activities. Previous models and concepts in migrant entrepreneurship studies have not fully succeeded in recognising the role played by differential groups and places in the pursuit of opportunities by transnational migrant entrepreneurs. This is due to a tendency to focus on the country of residence as well as on the inclination to view migrant entrepreneurs as members of a coherent ethnic or national group. To help fill this gap, we propose a new model combining the concept of multifocality, covering the simultaneous involvement of migrant entrepreneurs in both multiple places and multiple groups, with group modes of behaviour as an additional dimension influencing the opportunity structure. The case of Moroccan transnational entrepreneurs in Amsterdam shows that the role of multifocality in place, in combination with group modes of behaviour, is critical when it comes to pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3
Pages (from-to)1-24
JournalComparative Migration Studies
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Entrepreneurial opportunities
  • Migrant entrepreneurship
  • Mixed embeddedness
  • Multifocality
  • Transnational entrepreneurship
  • Transnationalism


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