Measuring Multisensory Imagery of Wine: the Vividness of Wine Imagery Questionnaire

I.M. Croijmans, Laura Speed, Artin Arshamian, Asifa Majid

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When we imagine objects or events, we often engage in multisensory mental imagery. Yet, investigations of mental imagery have typically focused on only one sensory modality — vision. One reason for this is that the most common tool for the measurement of imagery, the questionnaire, has been restricted to unimodal ratings of the object. We present a new mental imagery questionnaire that measures multisensory imagery. Specifically, the newly developed Vividness of Wine Imagery Questionnaire (VWIQ) measures mental imagery of wine in the visual, olfactory, and gustatory modalities. Wine is an ideal domain to explore multisensory imagery because wine drinking is a multisensory experience, it involves the neglected chemical senses (smell and taste), and provides the opportunity to explore the effect of experience and expertise on imagery (from wine novices to experts). The VWIQ questionnaire showed high internal consistency and reliability, and correlated with other validated measures of imagery. Overall, the VWIQ may serve as a useful tool to explore mental imagery, for researchers, as well as individuals in the wine industry during sommelier training and evaluation of wine professionals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-195
JournalMultisensory Research
Issue number3
Early online date19 Mar 2019
Publication statusPublished - 7 May 2019


  • Multisensory imagery
  • wine
  • vision
  • olfaction
  • taste
  • cognition
  • experience


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