LUR modeling of long-term average hourly concentrations of NO2 using hyperlocal mobile monitoring data

Zhendong Yuan*, Youchen Shen, Gerard Hoek, Roel Vermeulen, Jules Kerckhoffs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Mobile monitoring campaigns have effectively captured spatial hyperlocal variations in long-term average concentrations of regulated and unregulated air pollutants. However, their application in estimating spatiotemporally varying maps has rarely been investigated. Tackling this gap, we investigated whether mobile measurements can assess long-term average nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for each hour of the day. Using mobile NO 2 data monitored for 10 months in Amsterdam, we examined the performance of two spatiotemporal land use regression (LUR) methods, Spatiotemporal-Kriging and GTWR (Geographical and Temporal Weighted Regression), alongside two classical spatial LUR models developed separately for each hour. We found that mobile measurements follow the general pattern of fixed-site measurements, but with considerable deviations (indicating collection uncertainty). Leveraging heterogeneous spatiotemporal autocorrelations, GTWR smoothed these deviations and achieved an overall performance of an R 2 of 0.49 and a Mean Absolute Error of 6.33 μg/m 3, validated by long-term fixed-site measurements (out-of-sample). The other models tested were more affected by the collection uncertainty. We highlighted that the spatiotemporal variations captured in mobile measurements can be used to reconstruct long-term average hourly air pollution maps. These maps facilitate dynamic exposure assessments considering spatiotemporal human activity patterns.

Original languageEnglish
Article number171251
Number of pages8
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Early online date27 Feb 2024
Publication statusPublished - 20 Apr 2024


  • Geostatistics
  • Hourly mapping
  • Hyperlocal variations
  • LUR
  • Mobile monitoring
  • NO


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