Long-term evaluation of a social robot in real homes

Maartje M.A. De Graaf, Somaya Ben Allouch, Jan A.G.M. Van Dijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study aims to contribute to emerging human-robot interaction research by adding longitudinal findings to a limited number of long-term social robotics home studies. We placed 70 robots in users' homes for a period of up to six months, and used questionnaires and interviews to collect data at six points during this period. Results indicate that users' evaluations of the robot dropped initially, but later rose after the robot had been used for a longer period of time. This is congruent with the so-called mere-exposure effect, which shows an increasing positive evaluation of a novel stimulus once people become familiar with it. Before adoption, users focus on control beliefs showing that previous experiences with robots or other technologies allows to create a mental image of what having and using a robot in the home would entail. After adoption, users focus on utilitarian and hedonic attitudes showing that especially usefulness, social presence, enjoyment and attractiveness are important factors for longterm acceptance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-490
Number of pages30
JournalInteraction Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016


  • Domestic environment
  • Human-robot interaction
  • Long-term study
  • Social robots
  • User acceptance


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