Liver organoids: Updates on disease modeling and biomedical applications

Carmen Caiazza, Silvia Parisi*, Massimiliano Caiazzo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Liver organoids are stem cell-derived 3D structures that are generated by liver differentiation signals in the presence of a supporting extracellular matrix. Liver organoids overcome low complexity grade of bidimensional culture and high costs of in vivo models thus representing a turning point for studying liver disease modeling. Liver organoids can be established from different sources as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), hepatoblasts and tissue-derived cells. This novel in vitro system represents an innovative tool to deeper understand the physiology and pathological mechanisms affecting the liver. In this review, we discuss the current advances in the field focusing on their application in modeling diseases, regenerative medicine and drug discovery.

Original languageEnglish
Article number835
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2021


  • 3D culture
  • Cholangiocytes
  • Hepatocyte
  • Liver disease modeling
  • Personalized medicine
  • Stem cells


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