## Abstract

We introduce the concept of Minkowski normality, a different type of normality for the regular continued fraction expansion. We use the ordering [Formula presented] of rationals obtained from the Kepler tree to give a concrete construction of an infinite continued fraction whose digits are distributed according to the Minkowski question mark measure. To do this we define an explicit correspondence between continued fraction expansions and binary codes to show that we can use the dyadic Champernowne number to prove normality of the constructed number. Furthermore, we provide a generalised construction based on the underlying structure of the Kepler tree, which shows that any construction that concatenates the continued fraction expansions of all rationals, ordered so that the sum of the digits of the continued fraction expansion are non-decreasing, results in a number that is Minkowski normal.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 455-476 |

Number of pages | 22 |

Journal | Journal of Number Theory |

Volume | 211 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jun 2020 |

## Keywords

- Champernowne number
- Continued fractions
- Kepler tree
- Minkowski question mark
- Normal numbers