Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials

David Daniel Ebert, Anna-Carlotta Zarski, Helen Christensen, Yvonne Stikkelbroek, Pim Cuijpers, Matthias Berking, Heleen Riper, Yvonne Stikkelbroek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents are undertreated. Computer- and Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (cCBT) may be an attractive treatment alternative to regular face-to-face treatment.This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether cCBT is effective for treating symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth.

METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases (Pubmed, Cochrane controlled trial register, PsychInfo) up to December 4, 2013. Only randomized controlled trials in which a computer-, Internet- or mobile-based cognitive behavioral intervention targeting either depression, anxiety or both in children or adolescents up to the age of 25 were compared to a control condition were selected. We employed a random-effects pooling model in overall effect analyses and a mixed effect model for sub-group analyses. Searches resulted in identifying 13 randomized trials, including 796 children and adolescents that met inclusion criteria. Seven studies were directed at treating anxiety, four studies at depression, and two were of a transdiagnostic nature, targeting both anxiety and depression. The overall mean effect size (Hedges' g) of cCBT on symptoms of anxiety or depression at post-test was g=0.72 (95% CI:0.55-0.90, numbers needed to be treated (NNT)=2.56). Heterogeneity was low (I²=20.14%, 95% CI: 0-58%). The superiority of cCBT over controls was evident for interventions targeting anxiety (g=0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; p < .001; NNT=2.70) and for interventions targeting depression (g=0.76; 95% CI: 0.41-0.12; p < .001; NNT=2.44) as well as for transdiagnostic interventions (g=0.94; 95% CI: 0.23-2.66; p < .001; NNT=2.60).

CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence for the efficacy of cCBT in the treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth. Hence, such interventions may be a promising treatment alternative when evidence based face-to-face treatment is not feasible. Future studies should examine long-term effects of treatments and should focus on obtaining patient-level data from existing studies, to perform an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0119895
JournalPLoS One
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015


Dive into the research topics of 'Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this