## Abstract

We present an O∗(20.5n) time and O∗(20.249999n) space randomized algorithm for solving worst-case Subset Sum instances with n integers. This is the first improvement over the long-standing O∗(2n/2) time and O∗(2n/4) space algorithm due to Schroeppel and Shamir (FOCS 1979).

We breach this gap in two steps: (1) We present a space efficient reduction to the Orthogonal Vectors Problem (OV), one of the most central problem in Fine-Grained Complexity. The reduction is established via an intricate combination of the method of Schroeppel and Shamir, and the representation technique introduced by Howgrave-Graham and Joux (EUROCRYPT 2010) for designing Subset Sum algorithms for the average case regime. (2) We provide an algorithm for OV that detects an orthogonal pair among N given vectors in {0,1}d with support size d/4 in time Õ(N· 2d/d d/4). Our algorithm for OV is based on and refines the representative families framework developed by Fomin, Lokshtanov, Panolan and Saurabh (J. ACM 2016).

Our reduction uncovers a curious tight relation between Subset Sum and OV, because any improvement of our algorithm for OV would imply an improvement over the runtime of Schroeppel and Shamir, which is also a long standing open problem.

We breach this gap in two steps: (1) We present a space efficient reduction to the Orthogonal Vectors Problem (OV), one of the most central problem in Fine-Grained Complexity. The reduction is established via an intricate combination of the method of Schroeppel and Shamir, and the representation technique introduced by Howgrave-Graham and Joux (EUROCRYPT 2010) for designing Subset Sum algorithms for the average case regime. (2) We provide an algorithm for OV that detects an orthogonal pair among N given vectors in {0,1}d with support size d/4 in time Õ(N· 2d/d d/4). Our algorithm for OV is based on and refines the representative families framework developed by Fomin, Lokshtanov, Panolan and Saurabh (J. ACM 2016).

Our reduction uncovers a curious tight relation between Subset Sum and OV, because any improvement of our algorithm for OV would imply an improvement over the runtime of Schroeppel and Shamir, which is also a long standing open problem.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | STOC 2021: Proceedings of the 53rd Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing |

Place of Publication | New York, United States |

Publisher | Association for Computing Machinery |

Pages | 1670-1683 |

ISBN (Print) | 978-1-4503-8053-9 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Jun 2021 |

## Keywords

- Knapsack
- Subset Sum
- Meet-in-the-Middle
- Space Complexity
- Representation Technique