Implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in radiology: hindering and facilitating factors

Lea Strohm, Charisma Hehakaya, Erik R. Ranschaert, Wouter P. C. Boon, Ellen H. M. Moors

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The objective was to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in clinical radiology in The Netherlands.
Materials and methods
Using an embedded multiple case study, an exploratory, qualitative research design was followed. Data collection consisted of 24 semi-structured interviews from seven Dutch hospitals. The analysis of barriers and facilitators was guided by the recently published Non-adoption, Abandonment, Scale-up, Spread, and Sustainability (NASSS) framework for new medical technologies in healthcare organizations.
Among the most important facilitating factors for implementation were the following: (i) pressure for cost containment in the Dutch healthcare system, (ii) high expectations of AI’s potential added value, (iii) presence of hospital-wide innovation strategies, and (iv) presence of a “local champion.” Among the most prominent hindering factors were the following: (i) inconsistent technical performance of AI applications, (ii) unstructured implementation processes, (iii) uncertain added value for clinical practice of AI applications, and (iv) large variance in acceptance and trust of direct (the radiologists) and indirect (the referring clinicians) adopters.
In order for AI applications to contribute to the improvement of the quality and efficiency of clinical radiology, implementation processes need to be carried out in a structured manner, thereby providing evidence on the clinical added value of AI applications.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5525-5532
JournalEuropean Radiology
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Computer systems
  • Diagnosis
  • Computer-assisted
  • Information systems
  • Radiology


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