Identification and Quantification of Charge Transfer in CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ Persistent Phosphor

Jintao Kong, Andries Meijerink*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Reversible charge transfer between lanthanide ions is identified as storage mechanism for the current workhorse persistent phosphors. Present evidence relies on sophisticated X-ray absorption spectroscopy to detect the reversible charge transfer. Here, simple optical spectroscopy is used to study the charge transfer in one of the benchmark persistent phosphors CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+. Based on the observation that both the trapping and de-trapping processes in CaAl2O4:Eu2+,Nd3+ are thermally activated, forward charge transfer from Eu2+ to Nd3+ and backward charge transfer from Nd2+ to Eu3+ are identified. The percentages of Eu2+ and Nd3+ involved in the charge transfer are >10%, which exceeds the previous estimates in other persistent phosphors. Furthermore, this strategy offers additional advantage of site selectivity, which enables the identification of the distinct contributions of different Nd3+ sites to the charge transfer. These findings underline the significance of reversible charge transfer in persistent phosphors and move towards a complete understanding of persistent luminescence mechanism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2203004
Number of pages7
JournalAdvanced Optical Materials
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 7 Aug 2023


  • europium
  • neodymium
  • optically stimulated luminescence
  • persistent luminescence
  • thermoluminescence
  • traps


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