Guidelines for designing social robots as second language tutors

Tony Belpaeme, Paul Vogt, Rianne Berghe, Kirsten Bergmann, Tilbe Goksun, Mirjam de Haas, Junko Kanero, James Kennedy, Aylin C Kuntay, Ora Oudgenoeg-Paz, Fotios Papadopoulos, Thorsten Schodde, Josje Verhagen, Christopher D Wallbridge, Bram Willemsen, Jan Wit, Vasfiye Geckin, Laura Hoffmann, Stefan Kopp, Emiel KrahmerEzgi Mamus, Jean-Marc Montanier, Cansu Oranc, Amit Kumar A I - ORCID: Pandey Paul; ORCID:

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


In recent years, it has been suggested that social robots have potential as tutors and educators for both children and adults. While robots have been shown to be effective in teaching knowledge and skill-based topics, we wish to explore how social robots can be used to tutor a second language to young children. As language learning relies on situated, grounded and social learning, in which interaction and repeated practice are central, social robots hold promise as educational tools for supporting second language learning. This paper surveys the developmental psychology of second language learning and suggests an agenda to study how core concepts of second language learning can be taught by a social robot. It suggests guidelines for designing robot tutors based on observations of second language learning in human-human scenarios, various technical aspects and early studies regarding the effectiveness of social robots as second language tutors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325–341
JournalInternational Journal of Social Robotics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018


  • Social robot
  • Second language learning
  • Robot tutor
  • Human–robot interaction


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