Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus in Biofilms in Comparison to Candida albicans

Eefje Subroto, Jacq van Neer, Ivan Valdes, Hans de Cock*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Biofilm formation during infections with the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus can be very problematic in clinical settings, since it provides the fungal cells with a protective environment. Resistance against drug treatments, immune recognition as well as adaptation to the host environment allows fungal survival in the host. The exact molecular mechanisms behind most processes in the formation of biofilms are unclear. In general, the formation of biofilms can be categorized roughly in a few stages; adhesion, conidial germination and development of hyphae, biofilm maturation and cell dispersion. Fungi in biofilms can adapt to the in-host environment. These adaptations can occur on a level of phenotypic plasticity via gene regulation. However, also more substantial genetic changes of the genome can result in increased resistance and adaptation in the host, enhancing the survival chances of fungi in biofilms. Most research has focused on the development of biofilms. However, to tackle developing microbial resistance and adaptation in biofilms, more insight in mechanisms behind genetic adaptations is required to predict which defense mechanisms can be expected. This can be helpful in the development of novel and more targeted antifungal treatments to combat fungal infections.

Original languageEnglish
Article number48
Pages (from-to)1-23
JournalJournal of Fungi
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Biofilm
  • Gene expression
  • In-host adaptation


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