Group-based flow: The influence of cardiovascular synchronization and identifiability.

Joyce Snijdewint, Daan Scheepers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Previous work has demonstrated the role of group-based flow in group performance and experience, but the physiological correlates of these relations are largely unknown. We examined the relation between cardiovascular synchronization, self-reported flow, and performance in a three-person online gaming task. We included measures of Heart Rate (HR), Pre-Ejection Period (PEP), and Cardiac Output (CO) as indices of task engagement and challenge (vs. threat) motivation. Group members were identifiable (i.e., visible) or anonymous during the game. Results indicated that PEP (as a marker of task engagement) and within-group synchronization in PEP, predicted flow, and that synchronization in PEP mediated the relation between group performance and experienced flow. The anonymity vs. identifiability of group members did not play a role in these effects. Results are discussed in terms of implications for flow theory, group dynamics, and physiological synchrony.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14227
Number of pages18
Issue number5
Early online date2 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • cardiovascular synchronization
  • challenge and threat
  • group flow
  • group performance
  • social identity


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