Flowing and framing: Language ideology, circulation, and authority in a Pentecostal Bible school

B.M.N. Reinhardt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Experiential and mediatized, Pentecostal Christianity is one of the most successful cases of contemporary religious globalization. However, it has often grown and expanded transnationally without clear authoritative contours. That is the case in contemporary Ghana, where Pentecostal claims about charismatic empowerment have fed public anxieties concerning the fake and the occult. This article examines how Pentecostalism’s dysfunctional circulation is countered within seminaries, or Bible schools, by specific strategies of pastoral training. First, I revisit recent debates on Protestant language ideology in the anthropology of Christianity, and stress Pentecostalism’s affinity with notions of flow and saturation of speech by divine presence. Second, I move to data collected in the Anagkazo Bible and Ministry Training Center, and investigate this institution’s pedagogical framing of Pentecostalism’s otherwise erratic flow of speech and power according to two normative operations: Biblical figuration and the emic notion of transmission as ‘impartation’. I conclude by stressing how the metapragmatics of figuration and impartation in Anagkazo requires an understanding of religious circulation that exceeds the dominant scholarly focus on religion-as-mediation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-287
Number of pages27
JournalPragmatics and Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • meta-pragmatics
  • Ghana
  • language ideology
  • circulation
  • pedagogy
  • authority
  • Pentecostalism


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