TY - JOUR

T1 - Fast Vacuum Fluctuations and the Emergence of Quantum Mechanics

AU - 't Hooft, Gerard

PY - 2021/5/25

Y1 - 2021/5/25

N2 - Fast moving classical variables can generate quantum mechanical behavior. We demonstrate how this can happen in a model. The key point is that in classically (ontologically) evolving systems one can still define a conserved quantum energy. For the fast variables, the energy levels are far separated, such that one may assume these variables to stay in their ground state. This forces them to be entangled, so that, consequently, the slow variables are entangled as well. The fast variables could be the vacuum fluctuations caused by unknown super heavy particles. The emerging quantum effects in the light particles are expressed by a Hamiltonian that can have almost any form. The entire system is ontological, and yet allows one to generate interference effects in computer models. This seemed to lead to an inexplicable paradox, which is now resolved: exactly what happens in our models if we run a quantum interference experiment in a classical computer is explained. The restriction that very fast variables stay predominantly in their ground state appears to be due to smearing of the physical states in the time direction, preventing their direct detection. Discussions are added of the emergence of quantum mechanics, and the ontology of an EPR/Bell Gedanken experiment.

AB - Fast moving classical variables can generate quantum mechanical behavior. We demonstrate how this can happen in a model. The key point is that in classically (ontologically) evolving systems one can still define a conserved quantum energy. For the fast variables, the energy levels are far separated, such that one may assume these variables to stay in their ground state. This forces them to be entangled, so that, consequently, the slow variables are entangled as well. The fast variables could be the vacuum fluctuations caused by unknown super heavy particles. The emerging quantum effects in the light particles are expressed by a Hamiltonian that can have almost any form. The entire system is ontological, and yet allows one to generate interference effects in computer models. This seemed to lead to an inexplicable paradox, which is now resolved: exactly what happens in our models if we run a quantum interference experiment in a classical computer is explained. The restriction that very fast variables stay predominantly in their ground state appears to be due to smearing of the physical states in the time direction, preventing their direct detection. Discussions are added of the emergence of quantum mechanics, and the ontology of an EPR/Bell Gedanken experiment.

KW - Suggested interpretation

KW - Terms

UR - https://www.webofscience.com/api/gateway?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=d7dz6a2i7wiom976oc9ff2iqvdhv8k5x&SrcAuth=WosAPI&KeyUT=WOS:000654260800003&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=WOS

U2 - 10.1007/s10701-021-00464-7

DO - 10.1007/s10701-021-00464-7

M3 - Article

SN - 0015-9018

VL - 51

SP - 1

EP - 24

JO - Foundations of Physics

JF - Foundations of Physics

IS - 3

M1 - 63

ER -