Eye tracking in human interaction: Possibilities and limitations

Niilo V. Valtakari*, Ignace T.C. Hooge, Charlotte Viktorsson, Pär Nyström, Terje Falck-Ytter, Roy S. Hessels

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


There is a long history of interest in looking behavior during human interaction. With the advance of (wearable) video-based eye trackers, it has become possible to measure gaze during many different interactions. We outline the different types of eye-tracking setups that currently exist to investigate gaze during interaction. The setups differ mainly with regard to the nature of the eye-tracking signal (head- or world-centered) and the freedom of movement allowed for the participants. These features place constraints on the research questions that can be answered about human interaction. We end with a decision tree to help researchers judge the appropriateness of specific setups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1592-1608
Number of pages17
JournalBehavior Research Methods
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Data analysis
  • Data quality
  • Eye tracking
  • Human interaction
  • Wearable


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