Extended Agrarian Question in Concessionary Capitalism: The Jakarta’s Kaum Miskin Kota

Bosman Batubara*, Noer Fauzi Rachman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This article reassesses agrarian questions by using the ongoing explosion in urban and urbanization theories to explain Jakarta’s urban poor (the Kaum Miskin Kota) as an extended agrarian question. It shows how the two capitalist development trajectories identified by Lenin as the Russian and American paths, or the transformation of feudal large-scale and small landholders into capitalists, respectively, do not apply in Indonesia. In the latter, a “concessionary capitalism” of large-scale land claims and allocations by the state is observed. This specific process produces specific agrarian questions of soil/land and labor through which the urban poor germinated. It closes with a political project, that is, to open more alliance-building possibilities between urban and rural social movements.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)232-255
Number of pages24
Journal Agrarian South: Journal of Political Economy
Issue number2
Early online date4 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • Extended agrarian question
  • Indonesia
  • concessionary capitalism
  • near-South
  • urban poor
  • urbanization


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