TY - JOUR

T1 - Evolution of the Carter constant for inspirals into a black hole

T2 - Effect of the black hole quadrupole

AU - Flanagan, Eanna E.

AU - Hinderer, Tanja

PY - 2007/6/8

Y1 - 2007/6/8

N2 - We analyze the effect of gravitational radiation reaction on generic orbits around a body with an axisymmetric mass quadrupole moment Q to linear order in Q, to the leading post-Newtonian order, and to linear order in the mass ratio. This system admits three constants of the motion in absence of radiation reaction: energy, angular momentum along the symmetry axis, and a third constant analogous to the Carter constant. We compute instantaneous and time-averaged rates of change of these three constants. For a point particle orbiting a black hole, Ryan has computed the leading order evolution of the orbit's Carter constant, which is linear in the spin. Our result, when combined with an interaction quadratic in the spin (the coupling of the black hole's spin to its own radiation reaction field), gives the next to leading order evolution. The effect of the quadrupole, like that of the linear spin term, is to circularize eccentric orbits and to drive the orbital plane towards antialignment with the symmetry axis. In addition we consider a system of two point masses where one body has a single mass multipole or current multipole of order l. To linear order in the mass ratio, to linear order in the multipole, and to the leading post-Newtonian order, we show that there does not exist an analog of the Carter constant for such a system (except for the cases of an l=1 current moment and an l=2 mass moment). Thus, the existence of the Carter constant in Kerr depends on interaction effects between the different multipoles. With mild additional assumptions, this result falsifies the conjecture that all vacuum, axisymmetric spacetimes possess a third constant of the motion for geodesic motion.

AB - We analyze the effect of gravitational radiation reaction on generic orbits around a body with an axisymmetric mass quadrupole moment Q to linear order in Q, to the leading post-Newtonian order, and to linear order in the mass ratio. This system admits three constants of the motion in absence of radiation reaction: energy, angular momentum along the symmetry axis, and a third constant analogous to the Carter constant. We compute instantaneous and time-averaged rates of change of these three constants. For a point particle orbiting a black hole, Ryan has computed the leading order evolution of the orbit's Carter constant, which is linear in the spin. Our result, when combined with an interaction quadratic in the spin (the coupling of the black hole's spin to its own radiation reaction field), gives the next to leading order evolution. The effect of the quadrupole, like that of the linear spin term, is to circularize eccentric orbits and to drive the orbital plane towards antialignment with the symmetry axis. In addition we consider a system of two point masses where one body has a single mass multipole or current multipole of order l. To linear order in the mass ratio, to linear order in the multipole, and to the leading post-Newtonian order, we show that there does not exist an analog of the Carter constant for such a system (except for the cases of an l=1 current moment and an l=2 mass moment). Thus, the existence of the Carter constant in Kerr depends on interaction effects between the different multipoles. With mild additional assumptions, this result falsifies the conjecture that all vacuum, axisymmetric spacetimes possess a third constant of the motion for geodesic motion.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34347376524&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.124007

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevD.75.124007

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:34347376524

SN - 1550-7998

VL - 75

JO - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

JF - Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology

IS - 12

M1 - 124007

ER -