Estimating the social value of nature-based solutions in European cities

Marija Bockarjova*, Wouter Botzen, Harriet Bulkeley, Helen Toxopeus

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


By implementing nature-based solutions (NBS), cities generate value for their residents, such as health and wellbeing. We estimate the aggregate social value to urban residents of 85 NBS projects implemented across Europe and find that the majority yield attractive social returns on investment. We offer a new metric to support investments for NBS by public and private actors for whom social value creation to residents is a core objective.
Original languageEnglish
Article number19833
Pages (from-to)1-7
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 18 Nov 2022


  • nature-based solutions
  • social value
  • cities


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