Disseminated toxoplasmosis in black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

Margreet Ploeg, Margreet Ploeg, Ton Ultee, Marja Kik

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


    Three 1- to 3-mo-old black-footed penguins (Spheniscus Demersus) died within 24 hr of showing central nervous signs such as ataxia. The birds were housed in a baby penguin crèche. At necropsy, peritonitis, pneumonia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and renomegaly were evident. Histologically, the liver, lung, brain, and small intestine contained numerous tachyzoites and a few cysts of Toxoplasma. Immunohistochemistry identified the protozoal parasites as Toxoplasma gondii. Ultrastructurally, this was confirmed by the presence of many tachyzoites of T. gondii in the liver and lungs.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)701-703
    Number of pages3
    JournalAvian Diseases
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Dec 2011


    • Animals
    • Animals, Zoo
    • Bird Diseases
    • Fatal Outcome
    • Spheniscidae
    • Toxoplasmosis, Animal


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