Development and evaluation of a Chinese version of the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI)

X. Sun, M.T. Mainhard, T. Wubbels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Teacher–student interpersonal relationships play an important role in education. The Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) was designed to measure students’ interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. There are two Chinese versions of the QTI forstudent use, and that inherited the weaknesses of the previous English versions, such asitems that focus on class behaviour, instead of teacher behaviour, or that include condi-tionals and negations. The present study aimed to develop an improved Chinese version ofthe QTI which is conceptually parallel with the original QTI and with the use of optimalitem wording. The process contained several steps, including expert panels and student andteacher interviews. New items were also created based on the Chinese secondary classroomcontext, rather than only using translations of English items. The final version of the Chinese version of the QTI presented in this paper was evaluated with a sample of 2000 students from 4 secondary schools in mainland China who rated a total of 80 teachers. The resulting version of the Chinese QTI had adequate validity and reliability, and it distinguished clearly between teachers. The predictive validity was supported by the relationbetween the students’ perceptions of their teachers and their academic emotions in class. Although further improvement of the instrument is recommended, it can be used to study interpersonal teacher behaviour in China and to help to improve Chinese teachers’ teaching practices.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1
Pages (from-to)1-17
JournalLearning Environments Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Chinese secondary education
  • Interpersonal theory
  • Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction
  • Teacher–student relationships


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