Debating Piety: Parvin E'tesami's Innovations in the Genre of Munāẓara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Parvin (or Rakhshanda) Eᶜtesami was an outstanding female poet of the classical style in Persian literature. She was also one of modern Iran’s most innovative and best loved authors. Yet her contributions to art and society have received surprisingly little critical analysis over the decades since her death in 1941. This study seeks to explore the particular artistic innovations she introduced through her work, and to show their importance for Iranian culture.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-62
Number of pages31
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Parvin E'tesami, Munāẓara, Persian Poetry


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