Cytokines and Chemokines Involved in Acute Retinal Necrosis

Lenneke de Visser, Joke H de Boer, Ger T Rijkers, Karin Wiertz, Henk-Jan van den Ham, Rob de Boer, Anton M van Loon, Aniki Rothova, Jolanda D F de Groot-Mijnes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose: To investigate which cytokines and chemokines are involved in the immunopathogenesis of acute retinal necrosis (ARN), and whether cytokine profiles are associated with clinical manifestations, such as visual outcome.

Methods: Serum and aqueous humor (AH) samples of 19 patients with ARN were analyzed by multiplex immunoassay. Infectious controls consisted of 18 patients with rubella virus-associated Fuchs' uveitis and 20 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis all confirmed by intraocular fluid analyses. The control group consisted of seven paired AH and serum samples from seven noninflammatory control patients with age-related cataract. In each sample, 4 anti-inflammatory, 12 proinflammatory, 2 vascular, and 4 other immune mediators were measured. In addition, various clinical characteristics were assessed.

Results: In ARN, 10 of the 22 mediators, including most proinflammatory and vascular mediators such as IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, MIF, MCP-1, Eotaxin, IP-10, IL-15, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1, were significantly elevated when compared to all controls. In addition, one anti-inflammatory mediator (IL-10) was significantly elevated in ARN as compared to the controls. No association was found between the time of sampling and the extent and levels of immune mediator expression.

Conclusions: The pathogenesis of ARN is characterized by the presence of predominantly proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines with high expression levels as compared to other infectious causes of uveitis. There are no indications for an obvious Th-1 or Th-17 pathway. The combined data suggest that immune mediator expression is related to severity of disease, which is more fulminant in ARN, rather than to a specific uveitis entity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2139-2151
Number of pages13
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2017


  • Aqueous Humor
  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunoassay
  • Retinal Necrosis Syndrome, Acute
  • Journal Article


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