Collaboration or competition? Interactions between floating and fixed-bottom offshore wind in Norway

Hylke C. Havinga, H. Z.Adriaan van der Loos*, Markus Steen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Fixed-bottom offshore wind is exploited as a maturing technology in many European countries. Floating wind has impressive potential for deep waters but needs technological and market development. How these two partially related technologies interact remains unclear. We address the ambiguity of these interactions to investigate floating offshore wind's development. The interactions are divided into technological or market and can be negative (competition and resistance) or positive (collaboration and diversification). We analyze these interaction types through a case study of offshore wind in Norway. Many positive interactions were observed, including knowledge overlaps and infrastructure compatibilities. Negative interactions include competition about future space constraints at ports, labor availability, and resistance by incumbent wind turbine manufacturers. Further, market and technological interactions are mutually influential, creating important feedback loops. Technologies can no longer be simply categorized as ‘niche’ or ‘regime’, but rather ‘niche-like’ (emerging) and ‘regime-like’ (maturing); hence, both emerging-emerging and emerging-maturing interactions occur.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100872
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Innovation and Societal Transitions
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2024


  • Diversification
  • Floating and fixed-bottom offshore wind
  • Interaction
  • Resistance
  • Socio-technical transitions


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