Cognitive Bias Modification Training to Change Interpretation Biases

E. Salemink*, M.L. Woud, V. Bouwman, L. Mobach

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterProfessional


Cognitive models argue that psychopathology is not only associated with biased interpretations, but that these biases play a critical, causal role in the etiology and maintenance of emotional psychopathology. To examine this causal role, training procedures have been developed that modify interpretation biases, so-called Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I), to allow examination of the effects of interpretation biases on emotional symptoms. Subsequently, these training procedures have been offered to individuals with, among others, anxiety and depressive symptoms to reduce their maladaptive interpretation biases and associated symptoms. This chapter provides an overview of the different paradigms that have been used to modify interpretations across various forms of psychopathology. Based on recent reviews and meta-analyses, the findings of CBM-I training studies are summarized with a special focus on mediation and moderation. CBM-I training proves to be a valuable and promising approach, although there is room for improvement. At the end of the chapter, we will highlight a few areas that could be improved and offer novel approaches that seem successful in achieving the desired improvement.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInterpretational Processing Biases in Emotional Psychopathology
Subtitle of host publicationFrom Experimental Investigation to Clinical Practice
EditorsMarcella L. Woud
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-23650-1
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-23652-5
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2023

Publication series

NameSpringer Nature series CBT: Science Into Practice
PublisherSpringer Cham
ISSN (Print)2946-5419
ISSN (Electronic)2946-5427


  • Cognitive bias modification
  • Interpretation biases
  • Cognitive models
  • Mediator–moderator


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