Charge Scheduling of Electric Vehicle Fleets: Maximizing Battery Remaining Useful Life Using Machine Learning Models

David Geerts*, Róbinson Medina, Wilfried van Sark, Steven Wilkins

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Reducing greenhouse emissions can be done via the electrification of the transport industry. However, there are challenges related to the electrification such as the lifetime of vehicle batteries as well as limitations on the charging possibilities. To cope with some of these challenges, a charge scheduling method for fleets of electric vehicles is presented. Such a method assigns the charging moments (i.e., schedules) of fleets that have more vehicles than chargers. While doing the assignation, the method also maximizes the total Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of all the vehicle batteries. The method consists of two optimization algorithms. The first optimization algorithm determines charging profiles (i.e., charging current vs time) for individual vehicles. The second algorithm finds the charging schedule (i.e., the order in which vehicles are connected to a charger) that maximizes the RUL in the batteries of the entire fleet. To reduce the computational effort of predicting the battery RUL, the method uses a Machine Learning (ML) model. Such a model predicts the RUL of an individual battery while taking into account common stress factors and fabrication-related differences per battery. Simulation results show that charging a single vehicle as late as possible maximizes the RUL of that single vehicle, due to the lower battery degradation. Simulations also show that the ML model accurately predicts the RUL, while taking into account fabrication-related variability in the battery. Additionally, it was shown that this method schedules the charging moments of a fleet, leading to an increased total RUL of all the batteries in the vehicle fleet.
Original languageEnglish
Article number60
Number of pages19
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • battery electric vehicles
  • battery remaining useful life
  • charging order optimization
  • charging scheduling
  • machine learning
  • optimized charging scheme


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