Characterization of Magnetic and Mineralogical Properties of Slag Particles from WEEE Processing

Asim Siddique*, Peter Boelens, Fangchao Long, Shengqiang Zhou, Veerle Cnudde, Thomas Leißner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Magnetic separation has wide-ranging applications in both mineral processing and recycling industries. Nevertheless, its conventional utilization often overlooks the interplay between mineral and particle characteristics and their impact on operational conditions, ultimately influencing the efficacy of the separation process. This work describes a methodology able to achieve the comprehensive characterization and classification of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) slag. The primary objective is to establish a meaningful connection between the distinct properties of slag phases and their influence on the separation process. Our methodology consists of several stages. Firstly, the WEEE slag is sieved into distinct size classes, followed by classification into magnetic susceptibility classes by using the Frantz Isodynamic separator. To quantify the magnetic susceptibility of each class, we used a magnetic susceptibility balance, and to identify paramagnetic and ferromagnetic fractions and phases within these magnetic susceptibility classes, we conducted vibrating-sample magnetometer measurements. Finally, to establish a meaningful link between the magnetic characterization, mineralogical, and particle-level details, Mineral Liberation Analysis was conducted for each magnetic susceptibility class. This in-depth analysis, encompassing both particle properties and magnetic susceptibility classes, provides a better understanding of the separation behavior of different phases and can help to enrich phases with a specific range of magnetic susceptibility values. This knowledge advances progress towards the development of predictive separation models that are capable of bridging the gap between theoretical understanding and practical application in the field of magnetic separation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1417
Number of pages17
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2023


  • magnetic characterization
  • magnetic susceptibility classes
  • vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM)
  • WEEE slag


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