Assessing Bandung's Governance Challenges of Water, Waste, and Climate Change: Lessons from Urban Indonesia

Annisa N. Rahmasary, Steven H.A. Koop, Cornelis J. van Leeuwen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This study assesses the gaps, opportunities, and priorities of Bandung in managing its water and waste challenges. The City Blueprint Approach is used to identify pressures, to measure the city's Integrated Water Resources Management performance, and to assess its governance. Based on the analyses of Bandung, 4 topics are discussed in more detail: 1) the transferability of the lessons from Bandung, 2) the challenges of solid waste management in Indonesian cities, 3) community-based sanitation, and 4) implications for informal settlements. The assessment reveals that Bandung's basic water services are largely met but flood risks are high and wastewater treatment is poorly covered, leading to large-scale pollution. This is amplified by extensive land-use change and poor solid waste collection and treatment, as waste is almost completely dumped in landfills. Proper solid waste handling will reduce landfill dependency. Slum areas are disproportionately affected by climate-related hazards and continuously under recognized in the discussion of cities' risk and vulnerability, while its dwellers are the most vulnerable members of the society. Bandung has started with slum area legalization which provides slum dwellers with legal security that protects their right to live as well as access to basic public infrastructures. Inadequate monitoring and uncoordinated financial source allocations are among the governance gaps. Governance is reactive and community involvement is low. Yet, Bandung exhibits the characteristics of a collaborative city with the potential to maximize its cross-stakeholder learning with supportive leadership. Bandung and other cities in Indonesia face multilevel governance gaps. Bandung is recommended to expand the cooperation of private, civil, and public actors and implement network governance and decentralized management approaches focusing on improving the implementing capacity, better monitoring, cocreation, and better exploration of the options for financial support. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2021;17:434–444.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)434-444
Number of pages11
JournalIntegrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Issue number2
Early online date2020
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021


  • Bandung City
  • Climate change
  • Waste management
  • Water governance
  • Water pollution
  • Water
  • Waste Management
  • Climate Change
  • Waste Water
  • Cities
  • Indonesia


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