Alcohol-Related Knowledge and Alcohol-Related Norms in 4- to 6-Year-Olds-Evidence from the Dutch Electronic Appropriate Beverage Task

Carmen Voogt, Roy Otten, Marloes Kleinjan, Rutger Engels, Emmanuel Kuntsche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Limited research is available on children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms, yet a better comprehension of these factors may be crucial in explaining alcohol use later in life. This study provides insights into alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in 4- to 6-year-olds.

METHODS: Participating children (N = 329; 48.9% boys) were shown, on a tablet, 18 drawings depicting 72 male and female adults and/or children in various situations, and were asked to indicate what the depicted persons drank by touching 1 of 12 depicted beverages (4 alcoholic; 8 nonalcoholic). Subsequently, the children were asked to name the beverages and indicate whether they contained alcohol.

RESULTS: Children identified 30.7% of the alcoholic beverages (i.e., beer, champagne, red wine, and white wine) correctly by name, and they identified 41.6% of the alcoholic beverages correctly as alcohol containing. Children more often correctly identified the name and nonalcoholic content of nonalcoholic beverages compared to the name and alcoholic content of alcoholic beverages. No sex differences emerged in the correct identification of the name and the content of both alcoholic beverages and nonalcoholic beverages. However, alcohol-related knowledge was age graded. Alcoholic beverages were more often assigned to male adults (39.2%) than to female adults (24.8%) or to children (13.2%). Additionally, alcoholic beverages were more often assigned to adults depicted in the presumably more appropriate situations (e.g., "when having an indoor party": 37.0%) than to those depicted in the presumably more inappropriate situations (e.g., "when driving a car": 28.6%).

CONCLUSIONS: Four- to 6-year-olds already have knowledge about alcohol and its norms in adult culture. Insight into the development of children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms over time is required to investigate the transitions to alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol initiation often occurring in adolescence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1637-1647
Number of pages11
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume41
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2017

Keywords

  • Alcohol-Related Knowledge
  • Alcohol-Related Norms
  • Electronic AppropriateBeverage Task
  • Children
  • The Netherlands

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