Achieving a nature- and people-positive future

David O. Obura*, Fabrice DeClerck, Peter H. Verburg, Joyeeta Gupta, Jesse F. Abrams, Xuemei Bai, Stuart Bunn, Kristie L. Ebi, Lauren Gifford, Chris Gordon, Lisa Jacobson, Timothy M. Lenton, Diana Liverman, Awaz Mohamed, Klaudia Prodani, Juan Carlos Rocha, Johan Rockström, Boris Sakschewski, Ben Stewart-Koster, Detlef van VuurenRicarda Winkelmann, Caroline Zimm

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Despite decades of increasing investment in conservation, we have not succeeded in “bending the curve” of biodiversity decline. Efforts to meet new targets and goals for the next three decades risk repeating this outcome due to three factors: neglect of increasing drivers of decline; unrealistic expectations and time frames of biodiversity recovery; and insufficient attention to justice within and between generations and across countries. Our Earth system justice approach identifies six sets of actions that when tackled simultaneously address these failings: (1) reduce and reverse direct and indirect drivers causing decline; (2) halt and reverse biodiversity loss; (3) restore and regenerate biodiversity to a safe state; (4) raise minimum wellbeing for all; (5) eliminate over-consumption and excesses associated with accumulation of capital; and (6) uphold and respect the rights and responsibilities of all communities, present and future. Current conservation campaigns primarily address actions 2 and 3, with urgent upscaling of actions 1, 4, 5, and 6 needed to help deliver the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-117
Number of pages13
JournalOne Earth
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystem services
  • Goals
  • Population
  • Set
  • Sustainability


Dive into the research topics of 'Achieving a nature- and people-positive future'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this