Acceptability of a tradable driving credit scheme in the Netherlands and Beijing

Nico Dogterom*, Yue Bao, Meng Xu, Dick Ettema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


There is increasing interest in the concept of tradable driving credits (TDC) as an alternative road pricing measure. To a considerable extent, this interest is inspired by the belief that TDC will address some major equity-related concerns, which are often raised in the case of traditional road pricing, because the measure is revenue-neutral, offers an opportunity for individuals to gain, and guarantees a minimum amount of ‘free’ travel through the allocation of personal credit allowances. This study investigates the acceptability of a proposed kilometre-based TDC scheme for personal car use. By analysing data from the Netherlands and China (Beijing), opinions towards TDC and its determinants are studied in two different cultural, societal and institutional contexts. Acceptability was much higher in Beijing: 67% compared to 22% in the Netherlands. We relate this difference to higher congestion levels in Beijing and the city's current license plate-based driving restriction policy, compared to which TDC is evaluated to be more effective and fair by a majority of the participants. Having a higher income was positively related with acceptability in both countries, as were expected effectiveness and fairness. The effect of perceived fairness was particularly strong in Beijing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)499-509
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • Acceptability
  • Road pricing
  • Tradable driving credits


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