ABCB1 limits brain exposure of the KRAS G12C inhibitor sotorasib, whereas ABCB1, CYP3A, and possibly OATP1a/1b restrict its oral availability.

Nancy H C Loos, Irene A Retmana, Wenlong Li, Margarida L F Martins, Maria C Lebre, Rolf W Sparidans, Jos H Beijnen, Alfred H Schinkel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Sotorasib (Lumakras™) is the first FDA-approved KRASG12C inhibitor for treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carrying this mutation. Using genetically modified mouse models, we studied the influence of the efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2, the OATP1a/1b uptake transporters, and the CYP3A drug-metabolizing enzyme complex on the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of oral sotorasib. In vitro, sotorasib was a potent substrate for human ABCB1 and a modest substrate for mouse Abcg2, but not for human ABCG2. In vivo, the brain-to-plasma ratio of sotorasib (40 mg/kg) was highly increased in Abcb1a/1b-/- (5.9-fold) and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2-/- (7.6-fold) compared to wild-type mice, but not in single Abcg2-/- mice. Upon coadministering elacridar, an ABCB1/ABCG2 inhibitor, sotorasib brain accumulation increased 7.5-fold, approaching the levels observed in Abcb1a/1b-deficient mice. No acute CNS toxicity emerged upon boosting of the sotorasib exposure. In Oatp1a/1b-deficient mice, we observed a 2-fold reduction in liver disposition compared to wild-type mice, although these uptake transporters had no noticeable impact on sotorasib plasma exposure. However, plasma exposure was limited by mouse Cyp3a and human CYP3A4, as the AUC0–4 h in Cyp3a-/- mice was increased by 2.5-fold compared to wild-type mice, and subsequently strongly decreased (by 3.9-fold) in Cyp3aXAV mice transgenically overexpressing human CYP3A4 in liver and intestine. Collectively, the oral availability of sotorasib was markedly limited by CYP3A and possibly also by ABCB1 and OATP1a/b, whereas its brain accumulation was strongly restricted by ABCB1. The obtained results may help to further optimize the safety and efficacy of sotorasib in clinical use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106137
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalPharmacological Research
Early online date19 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022


  • Breast cancer resistance protein
  • Abcg2
  • P-glycoprotein
  • Abcb1
  • KRAS(G12C) inhibitor


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